The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much if not all of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim.
As result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question.
At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered.
Since the s, however, major medical associations in the U. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal.
It is not outright evident what was said, but the event brings to mind some important questions. The accusation of using outdated material and deviating into realms beyond the scope of one's expertise implies two things; first, it implies that there actually is information that is more up-to-date than what the nun presented on the topic of homosexuality, and secondly it implies that there are credible experts who are more qualified to teach or speak on the topic of homosexuality.
The question comes to mind, then, what exactly does the non-antiquated, that is, the up-to-date, data show about homosexuality? Also, what do the so-called credible experts say about homosexuality? When one browses the Internet, one will see that apparently many of the so-called experts on mental disorders claim that there is a significant amount of scientific evidence in support of the claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder.
Hence, it is necessary to provide a summary Plastic causes homosexuality statistics analysis of that purported up-to-date scientific evidence which supports the claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. I will show that there are significant deficiencies in the literature put forth as scientific evidence in support of the claim that homosexuality is not a mental disorder. Specifically, much of the literature they put forth as scientific evidence is irrelevant to the topic of homosexuality and mental disorders.
As a result of their deficiencies, the credibility of the
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics Psychiatric Association and the APA, at least in their claims regarding human sexuality, is called into question. I will begin by describing the APA and the American Psychiatric Association, and I will then present their stances on the topic of homosexuality.
The APA claims to be. APA is the world's largest association of psychologists, nearlyresearchers, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students as its members. American Psychological Association It is a medical specialty society representing growing membership of more than 35, psychiatrists … Its member physicians work together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental disorders, including intellectual disabilities and substance use disorders.
APA is Plastic causes homosexuality statistics voice and conscience of modern psychiatry. American Psychiatric Association a. DSM contains descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders.
It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be used in the research of mental disorders. It also Plastic causes homosexuality statistics a common language for researchers to study
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics criteria for potential future revisions and to aid in the development of medications and other interventions.
American Psychiatric Association bemphasis added. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has been considered to be Plastic causes homosexuality statistics authoritative guide to the diagnosis of mental.
It follows, then, that those psychiatrists that make up the American Psychiatric Association, especially those involved in determining the contents of the DSM, are considered to be the authorities and experts in psychiatry. For those who may not be aware, the study of psychology is different from the study of psychiatry, which is why there are two different professional organizations that study mental disorders.
The stances of the APA and the American Psychiatric Association on homosexuality are discussed in at least two important documents. TexasU. I will refer to the scientific evidence cited in the documents, and I will follow with an analysis of that literature put forth as scientific evidence.
Other members of the task force were Lee Beckstead, Ph. So, prior to assessing their discussions, the reader should note that those involved with this APA task force are Plastic causes homosexuality statistics speaking or writing from neutral standpoints. I will be drawing quotes from two different documents. Same-sex sexual attractions, behavior, and orientations per se are normal and positive variants of human sexuality—in other words, they do not indicate either mental or developmental disorders.
Decades of research and clinical experience have led all mainstream mental health organizations in this country to the conclusion that homosexuality is a normal form of human sexuality.
Brief of Amici Curiae1. Hence, the basic stance of the APA and the American Psychiatric Association is that homosexuality is not a mental disorder but is rather a normal form of human sexuality, and they propose that their stance is based on significant scientific evidence. Both documents proceed by providing historical reviews of homosexuality Plastic causes homosexuality statistics psychoanalysis. It goes without saying that a letter written in is outdated—or antiquated, depending on one's choice of words.
The omission of that line from Freud's work is misleading. At the same time that the pathologizing views of in American psychiatry and psychology were being codified, countervailing evidence was accumulating that this stigmatizing view was ill founded. The publication of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics Behavior in the Human Female demonstrated that homosexuality was more common than previously assumed, thus suggesting that such behaviors were part of Plastic causes homosexuality statistics continuum of sexual behaviors and orientations.
In other words, the APA is suggesting the following based off of Kinsey's books:. Kinsey's argument that is adopted by the APA is equally as deficient as Freud's.
Kinsey explains his theory of continuums in nature:. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. Not all things are black nor all things white. It is a fundamental of taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete categories. Only the human mind invents categories and tries to force facts into separated pigeon-holes.
The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects. The sooner we learn this concerning human sexual behavior the sooner we shall reach a sound understanding of the realities of sex. Kinsey and Pomeroyemphasis added. In regards to homosexuality, Kinsey and the APA authors concludes that because some people experience sexual attraction to the same gender, then it automatically follows that there is a normal continuum of sexual attractions.
It does not take a PhD to identify the deficiency in the argument. The normality of a behavior is not determined simply by observing a behavior in society. This is the case in all of medicine. It may be easier to understand problems with the argument by using examples of observed human desires for specific actions. Some human beings desire to remove healthy body parts; Plastic causes homosexuality statistics desire to cut themselves with razor blades, while others desire to harm themselves in other ways.
These people are not necessarily suicidal; instead, they desire to remove their healthy limbs or they desire to inflict harm on themselves without causing death. Studies have reported that the condition has an onset in early childhood and that it may even be present since birth Blom, Hennekam, and Denys1.
It has also been reported in a study of 54 individuals with the condition that This desire to remove healthy limbs may be Plastic causes homosexuality statistics, or in other words, people may be born with the desire to remove their healthy limbs.
The disordered desire comes in the form of a thought, as is the case of most if not all desires. In many cases, the disorder is present since childhood. Finally, individuals who act on the inclination to have a limb removed feel better after the limb is
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics. The reader should notice here a parallel between the disordered-nature of xenomelia and the disordered-nature of homosexuality.
David Klonsky noted that:. Self-injury is defined as the destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent and for not socially sanctioned … Common forms of self-injury include cutting, burning, scratching, and interfering with wound healing.
Other forms include carving words or symbols into one's skin, banging body parts, and needle-sticking. Klonsky— Some may use self-injury as a means for generating excitement or exhilaration in a manner similar to skydiving or bungee jumping. Klonsky and Muehlenkamp Klonsky, emphasis added.
Now, back to the original purpose for providing the examples of body integrity identity disorder and self-injury. Again, an abbreviated version of Kinsey's argument looks like this:.
Hence, we can see how illogical and deficient Kinsey's and the APA's argument is; the observation that a behavior is more common than previously assumed does not automatically lead to the conclusion that there is a normal continuum of behaviors.
On one end of Kinsey's spectrum would be those who desire to kill themselves, while on the other end of the spectrum there would be those who desire health and normal functioning of their body.
Somewhere between, according to Kinsey's logic, would be those who desire to cut their arms, and next to them would be those who desire to remove their arms completely.
This brings up the question—why are all behaviors not considered to be normal variants of human behavior? If that were case then there would be no such thing as a mental disorder or physical disorder for that matterand there would be no need for those groups that diagnose and treat mental disorders. The desire to be a serial killer would be, according to Kinsey's logic, simply a normal variant on the continuum of human
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics. The literature does not support their conclusion, and the conclusion itself is absurd.
Additionally, it should be noted that along with illogical arguments, much of Kinsey's research has been discredited [ Browder ]. Kinsey suggested that 10 percent of the U. Department of Health and Human Services, 1.
Another source that was put forth as scientific evidence that homosexuality is not a mental disorder is a study by C. Ford and Frank A. Ford and Beach revealed that same-sex behaviors and homosexuality were present in a wide Plastic causes homosexuality statistics of animal species and human cultures. This finding suggested that there was nothing unnatural about same-sex behaviors or homosexual sexual orientation.
Plastic causes homosexuality statistics quotation is in reference to a book titled Patterns of Sexual Behavior.
It was written inand it suggested that homosexual activity was accepted in 49 out of 76 cultures after looking at anthropological data Gentile and Miller The argument is simplified in the following manner:. For example, cannibalism has been shown to be widespread in human cultures and non-human animals Petrinovich We can arrive at that conclusion through common sense without being an anthropologist, sociologist, psychologist, or biologist.
Once again, the literature does not support their conclusion, and the conclusion itself is absurd; their argument is not a scientific argument. The discussion could also be used to illustrate Kinsey's and the APA's absurd logic: The APA task force continues with its claims that homosexuality is not a mental disorder by writing:.
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Plastic causes homosexuality statistics BPA causes homosexuality. A pride march in Belgrade last month. Scientists warn that the new findings should not be used to produce a test or “cure” for homosexuality.
A common chemical in plastic may make little boys behave a bit more like little girls. of BPA, a chemical in some plastics, had abnormally high rates of erectile to avoid processed foods—a worthwhile choice anyway, for other reasons. being girls and more likely to choose homosexuality or bisexuality.